Partially funded by DFID & British Council under Higher Education Link Programme
Pakistani Food Composition Tables

Title of the thesis

Assessment of nutritional anemia in school going Children belonging to low socioeconomic level.

Name of Author

Dr Azmat Ullah


Cantt.General Hospital, G.T Road, Rahwali.

Reg #


Roll #


Student’s Batch # 1st
Research Supervisor

Dr. Salah-Ud-Din


PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozpur Road Lahore.


Iron deficiency anemia is a serious problem among Pakistani children. 150 children of both sexes 7-18 years belonging to semi urban area of Jhelum were selected. Prior to access Hematological status of children for Hemoglobin estimation, their physical examinations were carried out. Primary objective of study was to assess the prevalence of anemia in children to draw out line of nutritional assessment of community and suggest programme to combat the situation.

Before starting the studies, the medical history of the children regarding taking of iron containing medicines, family history of Thelesemia, H/o congenital heart disease was recorded to exclude potential intervening variables. Almost all children were given survey questionnaire performa regarding their socio-economic status, house hold size and other relevant information to record the responses of food consumption frequency, eating habits, food fads, history of worm infestation etc. Physical examination and nutritional status of each student was checked individually by taking height, weight and body mass index (BMI). As far as nutritional status of both genders was concerned, 53.3% boys and 46.7% girls were nutritionally normal. 42.7% boys and 56. &7% girls were moderately malnourished and only three boys and two girls out of 150 were severely malnourished in the ratio of 4% and 2.6% respectively.

Blood samples were drawn from all the children for hemoglobin estimation. The children were classified anemic according to the cut off value of hemoglobin of different age groups, for age group 7-10 years, 11-14 years and 15-18 years. These cut off values were 11g/dl, 12g/dl and for the last group for boys, it was 13g/dl and for girls 12g/dl. 83.3% children were found to be anemic. Magnitude of the anemia was classified as mild, moderate and severe. 53.3% boys and 69.3% girls were mildly anemic, 22.7% boys and 23.07%girls were moderately anemic and only 5% and 3% male and female students were severely anemic respectively. Overall anemia percentage was greater in girls (86%) than boys (80%).

Socioeconomic factors, mother’s education, family size are the factors which contributes a lot in the high prevalence of anemia, therefore to combat this deficiency or to minimize it is of vital importance and should be a public priority, to prevent the future of tomorrow and avert the associated cognitive and physical deficits in child development. It is only possible if health policy makers, professionals, health and allied departments, NGO’s and other community leaders should realize the severity of the problem and exercise their efforts to minimize the anemia.


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