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Pakistani Food Composition Tables

Title of the thesis

Relationship of diet with renal stone formation.

Name of Author

Dr Muhammad Azad


H # 212 St # 33 G-8/2 Islamabad.

Reg #


Roll #


Student’s Batch # 2nd
Research Supervisor

Dr Mansoor ul Haq Baqai


Department of Urology, Capital Hospital Islamabad.


Calculus disease of the kidney is the most common ailment encountered in urological practice. The incidence of urinary calculi in Pakistan is very high as our country is situated in the stone belt of the world.

The present study was conducted to explore the role of diet in renal stone formation by comparing the dietary intake of certain food items by stone formers (cases) and non stone formers (controls), and to evaluate the effect of other urinary risk factors on renal stone formation. It was a retrospective case-control study.

Cases and controls were recruited from the adult population attending Urology department of Capital Hospital. A food frequency questionnaire was developed for the foods presumed to have role in renal stone formation due to their high contents of calcium, oxalate, animal protein, fat and refined sugar. Personal characteristics and dietary habits of fifty stone formers (cases) were recorded. Fifty control subjects (Non stone formers) were selected to match for age and sex, living in the same geographical area and having almost same economical, educational and occupational status. The data for both the groups were collected, grouped, tabulated and analyzed by statistical and percentage method.

Dietary risk factors for renal stone formers are many and complex. No significant difference was observed in the consumption of calcium containing foods (milk and milk products) between both the groups. The intake of food items rich in purines, animal fat and animal protein (brain, liver, kidney, nehari, pai and eggs) and oxalate rich foods (methi, mustard green, cabbage, apples, chocolate biscuits, beans and tea) were found to be high in stone formers than non-stone formers. Stone formers were also found using more table salt than non-stone formers. This shows a positive association between these dietary component and renal stone formation. Significant difference was found to have positive family history of renal stones. Similarly, significant difference was observed in the intake of fluid and lemonade between both the groups. Stone formers were taking less fluids and lemonade then non-stone formers, in renal stone formation.

The result of the present study underline the association of genetic and nutritional factors in the pathogenesis of urinary stone formation.

Recent and older evidence support a primary role for modification of diet and certain lifestyle in the prevention of recurrent stone formation. Changing diet can dramatically reduce risk of making more kidney stones. In the light of findings and conclusions of the present study, preventive dietary modification can be suggested for specific population.


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