Partially funded by DFID & British Council under Higher Education Link Programme
Pakistani Food Composition Tables

Title of the thesis

Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia In Adolescent Girls.

Name of Author

Dr Mamoona Kamran


H # 54, St # 55, G-9/4 Islamabad.

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Student’s Batch #  
Research Supervisor

Dr M.Akmal Khan




Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is a wide spread problem worldwide, therefore its prevalence in adolescent girls of Peshawar was studied in this research. For this a sample size of 200 girls from local schools of Peshawar was selected and a questionnaire was prepared covering anthropometric, dietary and clinical assessment. For confirmation of IDA, laboratory test of Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured.

Most of the information was collected as the verbal responses from the respondents; however data for clinical assessment especially for signs for IDA was recorded after medical examination. Biochemical tests for Hb were performed in the field. The collected data was processed with the help of computer in Microsoft Excel and all figure were computer generated.

From the results of the research it proved that IDA is widespread problem in adolescent girls of Peshawar i.e. 61%. The average Hb level of adolescent girls is only 11.37 g/dl below the normal level of 12 g/dl.

It was found that BMI did not have any significant correlation with IDA. Dietary information pointed that increased dietary iron intake does help in prevention of IDA. Girls taking more than 10 mg of dietary iron have average Hb level of 12.04 g/dl; however these girls were only 9.05%. A comparison of Anemic and Non-anemic girls indicated that anemic girls (61%) were taking only 7.38mg of iron in contrast to non anemic (39%) who were taking slightly more dietary iron (8.36) mg per day

Relationship of IDA with symptoms showed that girls having positive symptoms associated with IDA had lower average Hb levels. Repeated infection was most common (28%) with average Hb of 10.67 g/dl. Strongest symptom was dizziness (12.5%) with lowest average Hb of 10.49 g/dl.

Four signs, skin pallor conjunctiva, tongue atrophy and conditions of nails, associated with IDA were examined. Skin pallor is most common (38%) with average Hb of 10.85g/dl in contrast to remaining (62%) who had average Hb of 11.68g/dl. Tongue atrophy was the strongest symptom though with only 5% girls having lowest Hb level of 9.76 g/dl. In spite of as low as 6.5 g/dl of Hb, no case of Koilonychias was found.

From the findings and conclusion of research it is evident that IDA is a widespread problem in adolescent girls in Peshawar i.e. 61% with average Hb level of 11.37 g/dl which requires special attention of public and private sector to control these problems through awareness, health education and dietary guidance.


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