VOL-III, ISSUE- I (Spring 2010)
EXPOSURE TO MOBILE PACKAGE ADVERTISEMENTS
AND BRAND LOYALTY AMONG USERS
Muhammad Nawz Mahsud
This descriptive study explores the effects of exposure to mobile package advertisements and brand loyalty among users. Data is collected from 240 students enrolled in various disciplines of University of Sargodha . The findings reveal that (67%) of the users prefer to use specific connection due to affordable package rates, and better service facilities. The results show that most of the users acquire first information about single/multiple connections from their friends and than by their family members, while they somewhat get information from the advertisements of mobile packages but not at significant level. It is further observed that male students relatively prefer using Ufone and female students prefer to use Warid as single connection. The findings regarding users' multiple connections show that most of the male students prefer to use Ufone-Warid, and the female students prefer using of Mobilink-Warid due to affordable rates and better signal services compared to all other available connections.
The mass media pervade our environment and with the mass media come the advertisements that underwrite them. A message tailored to persuade an audience to accept a product is not, in itself advertising, the people selling the product pay for time or space to enable them to bring the message is advertising (Jamieson & Campbell, 2001). Advertising is a form of mass communication, a powerful marketing tool, a component of the economic system, an art form, an instrument of business management and a profession. Advertising industry is one of the most important parts of mass media. Major funding system is of selling time and space for television and, space for newspaper. Today is the world of advertisements. Everyday we come across several advertisements on television, in leading newspapers and magazines. Advertisements are also seen on bill-boards, banners, neon sign boards and many more. Advertisements have long been a subject of both criticism and praise. They are very conspicuous and seek to call attention to themselves. But still the importance of advertisements can not be denied. Advertisements are both informative and persuasive and have created incredible awareness among people (Joshi, 2002).
The present study's objective is to find out whether these advertisements are playing their role in brand loyalty or the efforts of advertisers are going in air. The effects of advertisements on mobile users are studied, especially in perspective of brand loyalty among mobile users. The selection of the captioned issue to scientific investigation is to explore and determine the trends in brand loyalty of users in terms of their purchasing behavior affected by the exposure to mobile packages shown by mobile package's advertisements. In Pakistan millions of rupees are being spent on advertisements by multiple companies, their packages and on their claims that they are the best ones. So the effectiveness of the advertisements on mobile users is to be studied. Because it is not enough to produce memorable advertising, one must produce effective advertising which can show effects on the consumers. Advertising as a discrete form is generally agreed to have begun with newspapers, in the seventeenth century, which included line or classified advertising. Simple descriptions, plus prices, of products served their purpose until the late nineteenth century, when technological advances meant that illustrations could be added to advertising, and colour was also an option ( http://www.mediaknowall.com ). First advertisement in London 's Weekly Relation news was published in 1622. Advertising as a term was first time used in 1655. First branded item such as Baker's Chocolate appears in the stores (Wells, Burnett, and Moriarty, 2006).
At the early 1990s. Cellular telephone deployment is now world wide, but development remains concentrated in three areas: Scandinavia, the United States , and Japan . Telecom deregulation is occurring across the globe and the private market is offering a wide variety of wireless services. The leading technology in America is now IS-54 while GSM dominates in Europe and many other countries. Japan goes a slightly different direction, with Japanese Digital Cellular (or Personal Digital Cellular) in 1991 and the Personal Handy phone System in 1995 ( http://www . Privateline.com). An organization of professionals who provide creative and business services to clients in planning, and placing advertisements is an advertising agency. Top Advertising Agencies in Pakistan , t hese rankings of Pakistan 's top advertising agencies have been compiled from a list sent to Aurora by the major newspapers, magazines, TV channels and radio stations for the fiscal year July 1, 2005 - June 30, 2006. Orient McCann Erickson, Synergy Advertising (Pvt.) Ltd, JWT Pakistan, Manhattan Pakistan (Pvt.) Ltd, Interflow Communications (Pvt.) Ltd, MindShare Pakistan, Matrix Media, Pak MediaCom, AdCom (Pvt.) Ltd and many more (http://www.brandsynario.com).
Paktel. It was the first ever company granted license to carry out cellular phone services in Pakistan . It carried out AMPS services until 2004, when the company launched GSM services as well. Its main competitor emerged in late 1990s as Instaphone and soon began to dominate the market. However after the launch and rapid success of Mobilink in 1998, both services lost market share. In 2003, Millicom Corporation, owners of Instaphone, bought Paktel as well. Millicom International Cellular S.A. on Sunday, 22nd January 2007, said it will sell its 88.86 percent stake in Paktel Ltd. to China Mobile Communications Corp. for $284 million, which includes the repayment of intercompany debt. The sale implies an enterprise value for Paktel of $460 million, Millicom said in its press release ( http://www.wikipedia.com ). Instaphone. It is a brand name of PAKCOM Ltd a subsidiary of Mmillicom International cellular S. A (MIC). Instaphone introduced Pakistan to mobile telephony in 1991.Instaphone holds honor of Pioneering coverage to an ever expanding network of 185 Cities. Insta's prepaid brands Insta One and Insta Xcite. Insta's postpaid brand is Contract ( http://www.instaphone.com ).
Mobilink. Pakistan Mobile Communications Limited , better known as Mobilink GSM , is a telecommunication service provider in Pakistan . According to Mobilink's official statistics, Mobilink had over 22 million customers at the end of December 2006. Mobilink started operations in 1994 as the first GSM cellular Mobile service in Pakistan by MOTOROLA Inc., later it was sold to ORASCOM, an Egypt-based multi-national company. Mobilink's corporate postpaid package is sold under the brand name "Indigo And prepaid by the name of Jazz” ( http://www.wikipedia.com ). U Fone. The company commenced its operations, under the brand name of Ufone, from Islamabad on January 29, 2001. Ufone expanded its coverage and has added new cities and highways to its coverage network. After the privatization of PTCL, Ufone is now owned by Etisalat Ufone markets its prepaid services as "Prepay" Postpaid services are marketed by the name "Postpay" ( http://www.wikipedia.com ). Telenor is a Pakistani GSM cellular service provider, and is a subsidiary of Telenor , Norway . Telenor acquired the license for providing GSM services in Pakistan in April 2004, and had launched its services commercially in Islamabad , Rawalpindi and Karachi on March 15, 2005 and on March 23, 2005 Telenor started its services in Lahore , Faisalabad and Hyderabad . Telenor has its Corporate headquarters in Islamabad , Telenor currently offers the second largest GSM and the largest GPRS/EDGE coverage in Pakistan . It also offers the widest portfolio of Value Added Service (http://www.wikipedia.com).
Warid. Warid Telecom is backed by The Abu Dhabi Group, one of the largest groups in the Middle East . The group is led by HH Shaikh Nahyan Mabarak Al Nahayan who is also Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research United Arab Emirates. Warid Telecom started its operation in May 2005 from Pakistan Warid Pakistan launched its services in May 2005. Within 80 days of launch Warid Pakistan attracted more than 1 million users  . Currently the network has around 7.6 million subscribers  and is ranked as the third largest operator in Pakistan . Warid Pakistan has the largest "post-paid" subscriber base. The post-paid plan is branded and marketed across the country under the name Zahi Post-paid , which means leader or royalty. The pre-paid segment is branded and marketed as Zem Pre-Paid (http://www.wikipedia.com).
The overall consensus of industry analysts is that Pakistan is one of the countries with a huge untapped potential for telecom growth and an attractive investment environment. Recently Business Monitor International (BMI) ranked Pakistan as a key destination for telecom growth . The BMI rankings take into account a number of factors including industry situation, growth potential, competitive landscape and economy and political risks etc ( http://www.pakistaniat.com ).
The Advertising. Today is the world of advertisements. To advertise originally means to draw attention to something. It is now the media form most often encountered. Currently it is estimated that in the US alone nearly $160 billion a year is being spent on advertising (Branston and Stafford , 2003). The reason of studying advertising is that is proved to be very influential among other contents of mass media. A study by the Harward School of Business Administration reported that the average American is exposed to 500 ads a day (Baigai, 1999). Advertising become big business in the 20 th century, offering many different jobs in advertising agencies and marketing section. The use of the media, like newspapers, television, direct mail, radio, magazines, outdoor signs and of course the Internet made this growth possible. It is a form of transporting information to the consumer (cited at: http://www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg .de).
Brand Loyalty. In the present study the effects of advertisements in terms of brand loyalty are to be studied. Because building brand value or equity is one of the most important element of advertising. Advertising plays an important role in creating brand loyalty. Brand identity is increasing in importance as companies try to differentiate their products in increasingly crowded fields (Russell, Lane, 2002). The final decision-making mode is typified by high involvement and rich prior experience. In this mode brand loyalty becomes a major consideration in the purchase decision. Consumers demonstrate brand loyalty when they repeatedly purchase a single brand as their choice to fulfill a specific need. Brand loyalty is based on highly favorable attitudes towards the brand and a conscious commitment to find this brand each time the consumer purchases from this category (Guinn, Allen, and Semenik, 2003).
So the value of brand is directly related to the recognition and loyalty and it engenders in buyers. In fact it is only because of brands that advertising exists. Consumers today are exposed to 300 and 3000 advertising messages on a daily basis (Shenk, 1997). A brand identifies a promise and a strong brand is a product, a service, a corporation, a trustworthy, and distinctive promise it is trust mark of enormous value. Creating and increasing brand loyalty results in a corresponding increase in the value of the trust mark (Shimp, 2003). The primary benefit of brand loyalty is that it provides insurance significant market share loss when a new competitor appears on the screen (Bovee and thill, 1992). Costumer satisfaction is absolutely central to the idea of brand loyalty. There are also examples of brand that started out as huge success and then made a fate misstep somewhere along the way. Some research about the effecs of advertising suggests that the bulk of the effect is not gaining new triers but on reinforcing the loyalty of existing users (Batra, Myer, & Aaker, 1996). It was the branding of Nike so well-considered and craftily that it outshone all the rest of the brands in its category, using every possible branding tactic almost perfectly (Levine, 2003).
Research studies (Rothchild, 1987; Oslen, 1993; Sheth and Whan, 1974; Amine 1998; Sharp & Sharp, 1997; and Day, 1969) reveal that brand is slowly drying classes where the perceivable difference is in the price and where the consumers have learned, through deals and other differences do not matter (Rothchild, 1987). Previous reinforced behaviors are extinguished, where there is a removal between correlation with the response and the reward or when the competitor offers a new deal. Sometimes, brand loyalty can be created in early socialization process itself in childhood (Oslen, 1993). One dimension of research has viewed brand loyalty as a multidimensional construct involving the emotive tendency towards the brands, and the behavioral tendency towards the brand (Sheth and Whan, 1974). Depending on the product class and upon the consumer, the dimensionality of brand loyalty may be as simple as any one of the above three dimensions or as complex as all the three dimensions loyalty could be looked at from a downstream perspective or an upstream perspective (Amine, 1998).the substitution of promotion for a loyalty scheme, particularly when competitors continue with promotions, may lead to a decline in the penetration level may lead it to achieve 'excess loyalty' (Sharp & Sharp, 1997). Loyalty should be measured on the two criteria of attitude and behavioral loyalty (Day, 1969). As Myerson (2001) states that the whole concept of communication has been changed by mobile phone. Its key characteristics being instant access and speed, the mobile offers a paradox: it serves and individual needs, thus bringing itself a mode of communication nurturing independence, while at the same time belonging to an increasingly global system (Nawaz, 2006, p.4).
That's why the impact of advertisements in creating and maintaining brand loyalty is studied. Among a lot of mass media contents the advertisements are studied that how they are influencing the purchasing behavior of the users. At present, different mobile companies are producing lots of advertisements by consuming millions of rupees. Advertisements are produced on competition. So to study whether these advertisements are playing role in making people loyal for any product or there are other factors which are making people loyal for any brand.
Stratified sampling procedure was adopted for classification—subgroups of demographic characteristics—of the respondents. “Stratification is the process of grouping the members of a population into relatively homogeneous strata before sampling. This practice has the effect of improving the representation of a sample by reducing the degree of sample error.” (Babbie 1992) Selltez, Wrightsman, Cook, (1976) explain that the degree of sample population is divided into two or more strata in stratified method. These strata may be based on a single criterion, for example, education--masters and bachelors, or on a combination of two or more criteria like age, sex, income and locations.
In the present study this procedure generated population subgroups or stratification variables that are to be represented in the sample. This approach adequately organized the population into homogeneous subsets and selected various elements from each. Travers, (1978) asserts, “Major advantage of this procedure is that it increases accuracy.” For data collection purpose the target of two hundred and forty respondents was stratified on the basis of education. The departments were selected carefully to assure equal representation of both masters and bachelors. One hundred and twenty respondents were from masters and one hundred and twenty were bachelors. The sample was further divided on the basis of gender—male and female. One hundred and twenty respondents were male and one hundred and twenty were females. The age range was from 20 to 30 years. This age range was further divided into two subgroups: 20 to 25, 26 to 30 and 12 respondents were interviewed from each department and from each gender. Therefore, total 240 respondents (users) equally consisting males and females belonging to various disciplines of the University of Sargodha were selected and convenience method was used for collection of data from the target population.
A well-planned questionnaire was developed in the line of lengthy discussion made with the focused groups. Through deep contacts with the respondents an untiring attempt was made to explore the effects process on three levels- cognitive, affective, and behavioral on different demographic characteristics. Constructing good survey questions involve two basic considerations: (a) The questions must clearly communicate the desired information to the respondents, and (b) the questions should be worded to allow accurate transmission of respondents' answer to the specific research questions (Wimmer and Dominick, 1983). An attempt was further made to sort out possible answers to the following basic research questions.
1. Whether the users' extent of brand loyalty towards their mobile connection is
differentiated on the basis of exposure to mobile package ads.
2. Whether the users' using habits of mobile connection is differentiated on the basis
of single or multiple connection(s)?
3. Whether there is any difference between male and female users' single or
multiple connections using habits?
4. Whether the users' purchasing behavior of mobile connection is
differentiated on the basis of exposure to mobile package ads?
5. Whether the users' extent of information towards mobile connection is
differentiated on the basis of interpersonal channels?
6. Whether the users' adoption of mobile connection is influenced by
affordable package rates?
The study's results illustrate that majority (70%) of the sampled users use single connection and somewhat (30%) of them use multiple connections. It is observed that most of the respondents are those who use mobile phone connection for the last two or less than two years. Findings regarding the first time connection subscriptions show that majority of the users subscribed Mobilink for the first time followed by Ufone, Warid and Telenor (Fig. 1.1).
Figure 1.1 First time connection subscription
A = Paktel B = Instaphone C = Mobilink D=Ufone E = Telenor F = Warid
The results regarding the users' current trend of mobile phones habits illustrate that most of them prefer to use Warid as a first choice of single connection followed by Ufone, Telenor and Mobilink. While the comparative analysis of male and female using habits of single connection shows different picture. The female users significantly prefer to use Warid as single connection compared to Telenor and Ufone while male users prefer to use Ufone as single connection. The critical review of the single connection reveals that majority of the users prefer to use Warid as single connection followed by Ufone and Telenor (Fig. 5.2). Findings regarding the users single versus multiple connections further reveal that majority of the users significantly (70%) use single connection compared to their habits of multiple connections (30%) using habits (Fig. 5.3).
Figure 1.2 Gender wise Single connection using habits
Figure 1.3 Use of Single Vs multiple connections
The comparative analysis of the empirical findings in term of users' using percentage of single connection shows that Warid overall 29%, male 13%, female 41% and Ufone overall 29%, male 42%, and female 18% are relatively the more successful connections in creating loyalty among its users. However, it is evident from the findings that male students prefer to use Ufone and the female students prefer to use Warid as single connection (table 1.1). Telenor and Mobilink are also somewhat successful in creating loyalty among its users. Little but not significant difference is observed among their overall, male and female users.
Table 1.1 Single connection using habits
Overall Male Female
Paktel 01* 03 00
Mobilink 17 21 15
UFone 29 42 18
Telenor 24 21 26
Warid 29 13 41
N: 168 76 92
* = Figures in the table show percentages.
The findings show discouraging position of Paktel and Instaphone because despite of the fact that Paktel was being launched in market since 1990, and Instaphone in1991 but both failed to create loyalty among its users. The results regarding the users' multiple connections using habits reveal that Ufone-Warid (overall 25%, male 28%, female 21%); Mobilink-Warid (overall 22%, male 18%, female 29%); and Telenor-Warid (overall 14%, male 14%, female 15%) are the most often using multiple connections (table 1.2). They are preferred by the users because of better service and good packages incentives. Ufone-Telenor and Mobilink-Ufone are also somewhat used by the users but it gender analysis shows that male (14%) segment little more uses the same compared to women (7%). The using habits of Mobilink-Ufone repeat almost the same situation shown by the users overall responses however, here female (14%) somewhat more use the said connections than male (09%).
Table 1.2 Multiple connection using habits
Overall Male Female
Paktel-Mobilink 03* 04 00
Paktel-Warid 08 04 14
Mobilink-Ufone 11 09 14
Mobilink-Telenor 06 09 00
Mobilink-Warid 22 18 29
Ufone-Telenor 11 14 07
Ufone-Warid 25 28 21
Telenor-Warid 14 14 15
N: 72 44 28
* = Figures in the table show percentages.
Findings further illustrate that Paktel-Mobilink using habits among users are observed very low, while Paktel-Warid, and Mobilink-Telenor using is also observed very little as indicated by table 1.2. As evident from the findings that majority of the respondents prefer to use Warid as a single as well multiple connections compared to all other connections, while Instaphone and Paktel in spite of their long history are ranked as the lowest one. The study results regarding comparison of the users' using of single connection illustrate that majority of respondents most significantly prefer Ufone and Warid as single connection followed by Telenor and Mobilink (Fig 1.4). The comparison of the users habits of multiple connections illustrates that majority of respondents most significantly prefer to use Ufone-Warid followed by Mobilink-Warid as multiple connections (Fig 1.5).
Comparison of using single vs multiple connections
Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5
A = Paktel B = Instaphone C = Mobilink D=Ufone E = Telenor F = Warid
Figure 1.6 Most frequently used pairs
A = Paktel B = Instaphone C = Mobilink D=Ufone E = Telenor F = Warid
Figure 1.6 shows that most of the mobiles users prefer using Ufone-Warid followed by Mobilink-Warid and Telenor-Warid as multiple connections. It is also interesting to note that Warid is significantly used by the users both as single and multiples connections. It is further observed that the target sampled respondents significantly acquiring first information from their friends about single connection and than by their family members. While they somewhat getting information from the advertisements of mobile packages for single connection but not at significant level (fig. 1.7 and 1.8). Similarly users using habits of multiple connections first information sources show the same picture, means that they are acquiring information from, friends and family members and then from package advertisements. In view of the overall findings analysis, it can be concluded that friends and family members are the major first information sources of both single and multiple connections users compared to mobile packages' advertisements.
First information source about connection (s)
Figure 1.7 Figure 1.8
A = Family B = Friends C = Frenchise D = Shopkeeper E= mobile package ads
The graphic presentation of data reveals that respondents of the target sample who are using single connection/ multiple connections are of the view that mobile packages advertisements very much provide effective information (see for instance figures 1.9 & 1.10) but again they consider that they are more often influenced by friends and family members. This situation endorsed uses and gratification approach, which is evident by the study findings that most of the respondents felt satisfaction with Warid and Ufone because relatively their better signal services and attractive package rates. The study results about the questions that which type of media did you see mobile advertisement for the time and also the type of media which you got information about your own brand for the first time, illustrate that the users significantly got information about mobile and about the specific subscribed brand from television (see figures 1. 11 & 1. 12) compared to other types of media—newspapers, magazines and billboards.
Acquiring information from mobile package ads
Figure 1.9 Figures 1.10
Acquiring information about brand from media
Figure 1.11 Figure 1.12
Mobile packages ads effectiveness (single connection user)
Figure 1.13 Figures 1.14
The results, which addressed the question that how much effective role played by mobile packages advertisements in informing the users about the brand, reveal that majority of the users are significantly of the view that packages advertisements did play very much effective role in providing them sufficient information about the brand (fig. 1.13). Similarly they are also of the view that mobile package advertisements played very much effective role in stimulating their purchasing behaviors (fig. 1.14). The users' response to the question that if you are given an option to choose exclusively one brand, then which one would you prefer, reveals that most of the users are significantly of the firm belief that they have to prefer Warid (fig. 1. 15). For the reason behind it they said because of better signal service and reasonable package rates.
Figure 1.15 Option to select one brand
A = Paktel B = Instaphone C = Mobilink D=Ufone E = Telenor F = Warid.
Figure 1.16 Reason behind preference (multiple connection users)
The users' response to the question that what made you to select your brands initially, illustrates that 67 percent of them prefer their connections due to affordable package rates, and 22 percent of them are those who prefer their connections due to better service facilities (fig.1. 16). The empirical results regarding one of the study open ended questions that which advertisements about your brand attract you more, reveal that 37.50% of the users are those who attracted by package rates, 26.67% attracted by network packages, while 20.83 percent users attracted by family members for using specific connections (fig. 1. 17). The findings further illustrate that respondents are highly influenced by variety of factors followed by model, description of package and presentation of their favorite advertisements.
Figure 1.17 reason for using existing brand
The results of the study regarding another question that how it happen that you switched over your brand after viewing the advertisement, show that little amount of the users switched over their brand after viewing advertisement, while majority of them never switched over their brand after viewing advertisement. The response of the users to one another question that how often advertisement of your brand make you more loyal with your brand, reveals that majority of them significantly very often or often happened to make them loyal with their brand. The findings regarding the extent to the brand name for the users illustrate that majority of them are of the view that their brand very much and much name matter for them.
SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
This study concerned with the effect of exposure to mobile package advertisements in term of creating brand loyalty among users. Apart from the effects of other sources like interaction with friends and family members regarding users' purchasing behaviors of single and multiple connections were also included. This descriptive study immediate focus was on the analysis of effectiveness of different mobile package advertisements and interpersonal communication channels—family members and friends—in providing information to users and its correlation with their purchasing behavior. Keeping in view the degree of difference among the users' documented responses, it can be illustrated that most of the target users purchased mobile connection after getting information from mobile package advertisements.
It was observed that users' exposure to mobile package advertisements significantly created brand loyalty among them, which extended support to the research hypothesis that ‘the more the users' exposure to mobile package advertisements, then the more their brand loyalty.' It was observed that mobile package advertisements successfully created specific brand loyalty among the users therefore this condition strongly endorsed the view point of Shimp (2003) that a dvertising exposure seems to reinforce preferences more than motivate brand choices and that obtaining the consumer's loyalty requires providing a brand that meets the consumer's needs, and continuously advertising the brand's merits to reinforce the consumer's brand-related beliefs and attitudes. It was also observed that most of the users significantly purchased mobile connection after viewing advertisements of that brand but their first source of information about the specific brand was observed as friends and family members.
The empirical evidence strongly supported the research hypothesis that ‘the more the users' exposure to advertising campaigns of particular brand, then the more their purchasing behaviors of that brand. It was further observed that most of the students of University of Sargodha were of the firm view that mobile packages advertisements played very much effective role in stimulating their purchasing behaviors of specific brand (see fig. 1.14 & 1.15). This situation led to conclude that given the high effectiveness of the other marketing variables, especially in brand choice, a reasonable strategy would be to promote trial with displays, features, and coupons, and then motivate heavier purchases with advertising. The empirical findings extended support to another research hypothesis that ‘the more the users' interaction with interpersonal channels, then the more their information level influenced.' It was observed that the most of the users' acquired first information about single connection use from their friends and than by their family members. While they somewhat have gotten information from the advertisements of mobile packages for single connection but not at significant level (see fig. 1.7). It was further observed that the users got first time information from their friends, family members and package advertisements regarding purchasing of multiple connections (see fig. 1.8). This condition strongly extended support to the view point of Bandura's (1986) that the mass media are rarely the only source of social learning and their influence depends on other sources such as parents, friends, teachers, and so on.
However, it was evident from the observed empirical findings that majority (67%) of students preferred to use specific connection due to affordable package rates, and better service facilities (see fig.1.17). This condition not only supported the research hypothesis that ‘the more affordable the package rates, then the more the purchasing trend of that brand' but also in the line with the view points of Kumar, & Rakshit (2003), that brand loyalty could be driven through functional value, symbolic value or through price, and also Raju et al. (1990) that the motivation to buy coupled with one of the above three drivers could lead to reinforcement, which could result loyalty among users' purchasing behaviors. The findings of the study did not extend support to one of the research hypotheses that ‘ if there is more the users' exposure to mobile package advertisements, then it is more likely that they recall rate of their favorite advertisements. It was also observed that majority of them (63.33%) didn't recall their favorite advertisements name.
The findings of the study as shown by table 5.3 extended support to one another research hypothesis that ‘the more the existence of brand reality claimed in advertisements, then more the users' satisfaction with that specific brand.' That is meant that mobile package advertisements shown real features of brands, which ultimately create brand loyalty among the users. This condition is in line with (cited at: www.pakistaniat.com) that the quality and aggressiveness of the advertising campaigns indicates the level of effort to gain market share.
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Dr. Muhammad Nawaz Mahsud is Chairman, Department of Communication Studies, University of Sargodha.
Mr. Noman Yaser is Lecturer in the Department of Communication Studies, University of Sargodha.
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